Loan-translations (calques) in phraseological systems of Slavonic languages
The research has proved, that, from historical point of view, the phraseology of Russian and other European languages contains numerous loan-translations (calques), mainly as the cultural heritage of ancient world and classical literature. The Bible was also an important source of this kind of borrowings. Powerful streams of borrowings from specific, culturally marked, regions can be observed in any language. Numerous borrowed phraseologisms have the integrating meaning. They influence not only vocabulary and syntax but also phonology and morphology. At the same time contrary tendency manifests itself in European phraseological systems of different periods – namely: definite phraseological nationalization. Hence – the appearance of specific expressions originating from folk culture, the tendency to cultivate in national language dialectal and culturally marked elements. Taking into account all these facts, the specificity of modeling phraseologisms after foreign pattern significantly broadens the range of international idioms in any modern language and can be seen as a powerful way to lingual integration of Europe.